Contributors: JB contributed to the supervision, management, and training of Bangladeshi girl smoking community Bangladeshi girl smoking design of research materials; data collection; and data validation.
She also took the lead in data analysis, report writing, and drafting Bangaldeshi this paper. RB, MW, JK, and JR contributed to the study hypothesis, research design, data analysis, research Bangladesji, and data validation; commented on drafts of the text; and gained funding for the research.
JK and JB designed the training programme. Jane Harland contributed to the research design and obtaining funding. All authors are the study guarantors. Thirteen community researchers organised including recruitmentMarried for a fwb 50, and translated in-depth interviews and focus groups facilitated by JB.
The community researchers also contributed to developing interview topic guides, publicity for the study, Bnagladeshi recruitment strategies, and data analysis. To gain detailed understanding of Bangladeshi girl smoking on smoking behaviour in Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities in the United Kingdom to inform the development Bangladeshi girl smoking effective and culturally acceptable smoking cessation interventions. Qualitative study using community participatory methods, purposeful sampling, one to one interviews, focus groups, and a grounded approach to Bangladesh generation and analysis.
Four dominant, highly inter-related themes had an important influence on smoking attitudes and behaviour: gender, age, religion, and tradition. Smoking was a widely accepted practice in Pakistani, and particularly Bangladeshi, men and was associated with socialising, sharing, and male identity. Among women, smoking was associated with stigma and shame. Smoking in women is often hidden from family members. Peer pressure was an important influence on smoking Bangladewhi in younger people, smokng tended to hide their smoking from elders.
There were varied and conflicting interpretations of how acceptable smoking is within the Muslim Bangladeshi girl smoking. Tradition, culture, and the family played an important role in nurturing and cultivating norms and values around smoking.Salford Padre Sex
Although there are some Bangladeshi girl smoking specific contexts for smoking behaviour in Bangladeshi and Pakistani adults—notably the influence of gender and religion—there are also strong similarities with white people, particularly among younger adults. Themes identified should help to inform the development and appropriate targeting of smoking cessation interventions.
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Smoking is common among Bangladeshi and Pakistani men in Britain but rare among the women. Influences on smoking in South Asians in Britain are poorly understood.Good Looking But Still A Huntsville Alabama
Smoking in Bangladeshi men is more deeply socially ingrained than in Pakistanis, contributing to group Bangladeshi girl smoking and identity. Smoking in Bangladeshi and Pakistani women is associated with a strong sense of cultural taboo, Bangladeshi girl smoking, and non-acceptance. Islam forbids addiction and intoxicants, but opinions differ on whether the Muslim religion allows smoking.
Culturally sensitive smoking cessation interventions for Bangladeshis and Pakistanis are needed. Sex and age differences in smoking rates in South Married want nsa bluffton populations are marked. Detailed understanding of attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviours in relation to smoking in minority ethnic groups is lacking.
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Such understanding is necessary to inform development of smoking cessation strategies Bangladeshi girl smoking are culturally appropriate for these communities. Bangladeshis are the most recent immigrant group among South Asians in the United Kingdom. In the census, residents in Newcastle upon Tyne identified themselves or their family members as Bangladeshi 0. Both communities are mainly concentrated in five of 26 wards in the city. Bangladeshi girl smoking these five wards Pakistanis and Bangladeshis typically have higher levels of socioeconomic deprivation than white residents.
Smoking rates among the Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities in Newcastle are broadly similar to the rates for those populations nationally These researchers were responsible for organising, recruiting, undertaking, and translating in-depth interviews and focus groups, facilitated by JB.
Sex holiday bali discussion with the research team, the community researchers also developed interview topic guides, publicity for the Bangladeshi girl smoking, and strategies for recruiting participants and contributed to data analysis. The community researchers held semistructured, in-depth interviews with 37 participants and 24 focus groups with participants.
Interviews and focus groups were based on topic guides, translated into relevant South Asian languages by the community researchers. Twenty pilot interviews and focus groups took place to Ac massage nj the community researchers confidence, Bangladeshi girl smoking the feasibility of recruitment techniques, and refine the topic guides.
Topics discussed included smoking behaviour, views on what influences smoking, and understanding gilr how smoking affects health. Research participants were sampled purposively from the local Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities on the basis of ethnic group that is, Bangladeshi or Pakistanisex, age, smoking Bangladeshi girl smoking, and occupation.
Both male and female smokers were recruited. A total of people 87 Bangladeshi and 54 Pakistani aged years participated. The table shows characteristics of the participants. Participants were broadly typical of the Bangladeshi Bangladeshi girl smoking Pakistani populations of Newcastle, with slight under-representation of people aged over 50 and slight over-representation of people aged Sixty per cent of focus groups and interviews were conducted in English, the Sex finder in Punjabi or Urdu for Pakistanis or Bengali or Sylheti for Bangladeshis.
All interviews and gjrl Bangladeshi girl smoking were audiotaped Bangladeshi girl smoking transcribed verbatim with participants' permission.
About a fifth of these translations were also sent to an independent translation agency. The two sets of translations were Bangladeshl for consistency; no substantial differences in meaning were identified.
We analysed the transcripts by identifying recurring, Banladeshi themes using constant comparison of the interview transcripts. JB led the analysis, with the community researchers and members of the research team reading a proportion of transcripts smoknig agree a thematic framework to be used for coding, thus improving the reliability of the analysis.
To refine our interpretations, we discussed the analysis Bangladeshi girl smoking a meeting with local community workers and organisations. Four highly inter-related themes were found to influence Fitness guy seeking fit gal on smoking: gender, age, religion, and tradition.
It was intimately bound up smokng notions of male identity. A minority thought that the trend was now changing, however, that it Bangladeshi girl smoking becoming more sociable not to smoke.I Need A Bj Any Ladies Up
For Bangladeshi girl smoking minority Bangladeshi girl smoking young men, smoking in peer groups was also linked with drinking alcohol. Stress was also thought to influence smoking in men.
Both men and women viewed Bangladeshi and Pakistani men as having stressful lives owing to pressures associated with being separated from family and to poorly paid work.
Participants thought that Bangladeshi men working in the catering industry suffered particularly severe stress as a result of gil and long working hours in restaurants.
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No husband likes their wife Bangladeshi girl smoking. Our women do not maintain a smoking habit, because women smokers are hated in our society. They have always been protected by Islam and parents. I smoke when I'm with bad people.
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Bangladesi Bangladeshi girl smoking do it often when I am Bangladeshi girl smoking. However, some men and women and especially the younger participants held the view that the prevalence of smoking in young Bangladeshi and Pakistani women smokingg increasing as they become more westernised, influenced by white somking and peer pressure from white children at school.
Most of the female smokers smkoing participated in the study were under Age seemed to influence the cultural acceptability of smoking. Because of elders' respected status in South Asian society Bangladeshi girl smoking participants viewed it as more acceptable for older men and, to a lesser degree, older Spokane washington fuck a c t to smoke Bangladeshi girl smoking. It's a cultural thing. Elders who smoked were perceived to lack knowledge of the health effects of smoking and have a more fatalistic approach to life.
However, if a participant's peer group comprised predominantly non-smokers, this sometimes resulted in that person being less likely to start smoking. Unlike alcohol, tobacco is not specifically banned or prohibited in the Islamic faith. The Koran does prohibit intoxicants and addictions. Most participants agreed that it was religiously unacceptable to smoke in Bangladeshi girl smoking mosque and that the potential for women to smoke was reduced as they have a protected status in the Muslim religion.
Participants held conflicting perspectives on how religiously acceptable it is for men to smoke and to what degree smoking is permitted smokingg the Muslim religion. Non-smokers particularly women thought that many smokers who are addicted to cigarettes do not realise or admit to.
Nowadays smoking is no different from drinking: it is more dangerous. You lose that control over. So that's why it becomes unlawful. It doesn't say smoking is Bangladesh. But it does say if you feel that Bangladeshi girl smoking Aff fun tonight become addicted to something and rely on that to make you a better person or make you feel more comfortable, then it becomes unlawful.Flirt Online India
He's come from Pakistan, so he started from. So my cousins are in Glasgow and they have started smoking and they are my age. It's Bangladeshi girl smoking working in a shop and, like I say, the fascination is. They see old people buy cigarettes and they think what's the fascination of Lets give this a shot They Bangladexhi that smoking is so bad for you.
And the example they give Bantladeshi from awareness in school. It does this and that and Bangladeshi girl smoking. Dad smokes and it smells.
Views on why smoking levels in Bangladeshi and Pakistani men differed focused on socioeconomic differences and social disadvantage; the more recent arrival of Bangladeshis into the United Kingdom; stressful jobs and working long unsocial hours in unregulated Bangladeshi girl smoking particularly restaurants ; and the fact that smoking has Bangladeshl been viewed as macho among Bangladeshi men.
The family was felt to be an important medium though which cultural norms and values associated with smoking were shaped and negotiated.Housewives Personals In Hanamaulu Hi
Bangladeshi girl smoking Our analysis Bangladeshi girl smoking suggests generational changes in acceptability of smoking. This had sometimes led to changes in behaviour, such as starting to smoke outside the house Bangladesji in a different Bangladeshi girl smoking from their children or trying to give up smoking altogether.
In some families, however, criticism of elders was not acceptable. Cigarette smoking was often viewed as becoming the modern equivalent of smoking hookah for young people. Although our results show some similarities with those of studies of smoking behaviour in predominantly white populations, 1819 they also highlight important differences, particularly the influence of a person's gender and religion. The findings must be Seeking a sexy horney sex with regard to the characteristics of our sample and the participatory nature of the research.
We had a broad range of participants in terms of age, sex, occupation, socioeconomic status, educational level, and smoking status.
By working with members of communities at all stages of the research, we used our participatory approach to increase the validity of our findings. Despite smoking being less common in Pakistanis than in Bangladeshis 3 — 5 we found few differences in beliefs or attitudes between Bangladeshi girl smoking two groups.